Condition: In good condition, see pictures for more details. Arletian rule was interrupted between 942 and 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. France may have travel restrictions in place, including self-quarantine, due to COVID-19. The residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". Guests and rooms. This started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries and ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968. Grenoble (/ ɡ r ə ˈ n oʊ b əl / grə-NOH-bəl, French: [ɡʁənɔbl] (); Francoprovençal: Grenoblo) is the prefecture and largest city of the Isère department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Southeastern France. In 1955, future physics Nobel prize laureate Louis Néel created the Grenoble Center for Nuclear Studies (CENG), resulting in the birth of the Grenoble model, a combination of research and industry. Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. The Sculpture collection features works by Auguste Rodin, Matisse, Alberto Giacometti and Alexander Calder. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, and a regular and leper hospital were built.[16]. Jardin de Ville: Nice garden. Jardin de Ville. [35], This event only intensified the activities of Grenoble's resistance movements. Métropole de Grenoble et la Ville donnent cette opportunité à des porteurs de projets innovants, lors de contrats de bail commercial allant de 3 à 6 mois. Leti and the recent development of Minatec, a centre for innovation in micro- and nano-technology, only increases Grenoble's position as a European scientific centre. Only two refractory priests were executed at Grenoble during the Reign of Terror. Its action was symbolized by figures such as Eugène Chavant, Léon Martin, and Marie Reynoard. The building is located just a short walk from the Tour Perret (1925 tower) and Grenoble's Olympic facilities in Grenoble France. In 2009, the site of De Bonne was distinguished as the best eco-neighborhood in France. As you walk around, look for the bronze statue La Fontaine du Torrent, which was created by local sculptor Urbain Basset in 1878. inquires the third estate; "Please heaven it had rained", lament the clergy; and "It will rain", proclaims the nobility.[29]. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry IV to the throne of France, allied himself with the governor and the lieutenant general of the Dauphiné. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal [fr], which settled at Grenoble in 1340. The Conservatory of Grenoble is founded in 1935. Grenoble's history goes back over 2,000 years, to a time when it was a small Gallic village. Another big hall, Le grand angle, is located nearby in Voiron. [17] That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. - See 99 traveler reviews, 52 candid photos, and great deals for Grenoble, France, at Tripadvisor. Located in Grenoble City Centre, this residence is within a 10-minute walk of La Caserne de Bonne and Paul Mistral Park. Located at the bottom of Bastille Hill, Jardin de Ville is a historic garden that once belonged to the 17th-century property of the Duke of Lesdiguières and now hosts a 5-day music festival. Get Jardin de Ville, Grenoble, France setlists - view them, share them, discuss them with other Jardin de Ville, Grenoble, France fans for free on! En tête du titre: Ville de Grenoble Addeddate 2011-04 … [24] Pope Pius VI, prisoner of France, spent two days at Grenoble in 1799[25] before going to Valence where he died. [48], The building now belongs to the Isère Council (Conseil Général de l'Isère). The station is currently undergoing reconstruction, which includes the electrification of the … It was only under his rule that Dauphiné properly joined the Kingdom of France. Electro-chemical factories were also established in the area surrounding Grenoble, initially to produce chemical weapons. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city. Jardin de Ville is a pleasant public park close to the base station of Le téléphérique and the Isère River. [62] A few small companies keep producing gloves for a very high end market. The large community of both foreign students and foreign researchers prompted the creation of an international school. There are two main art centres in Grenoble: the Centre national d'Art contemporain (also called Le Magasin) and the Centre d'art Bastille. On 13 November, the resistance blew up the artillery at the Polygon, which was a psychological shock for an enemy who then intensified the repression. This center is aimed at strengthening Grenoble’s international image. Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France, Histoire de Grenoble, Vidal Chaumel, Editions Privat, p.68,123,126,223, Grenoble, cœur de pierre, Françoise Goyet, Edi Loire, 1996, (, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, A. Doyon, Xavier Jouvin, inventeur grenoblois et sa famille, Paris, Dayez ed., 1976. The Cité Scolaire Internationale Europole (CSI Europole) was formerly housed within the Lycée Stendhal across from the Maison du Tourisme, but later moved to its own building in the Europole [fr] district. Meanwhile, Grenoble has large laboratories related to space and to the understanding and observation of the universe as the Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique, the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble,[56] the Laboratoire de physique subatomique et de cosmologie de Grenoble, the Institut Néel but also to a lesser extent the Institut des sciences de la Terre (part of the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble). You can easily spend a leisurely day seeing the sights and exploring what this neighbourhood has to offer. The city gained some notoriety on 7 June 1788 when the townspeople assaulted troops of Louis XVI in the "Day of the Tiles". Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin. ️ Jusqu'au 24 décembre, la boutique, située 10 rue de la République, propose un univers 100% local autour de l’enfance, de la parentalité, du bien-être et de … Located at the bottom of Bastille Hill, Jardin de Ville is a historic garden that once belonged to the 17th-century property of the Duke of Lesdiguières and now hosts a 5-day music festival. It is a tranquil spot and a great place to explore whilst in Grenoble. The museum also presents a few Egyptian antiquities as well as Greek and Roman artifacts. Check-in. The site of the exhibition became an urban park in 1926, named Parc Paul Mistral after the death of the mayor in 1932. Save Airport Grenoble - private VIP transfer to Chamonix on Mercedes V-class to your lists, Airport Grenoble - private VIP transfer to Chamonix on Mercedes V-class, Save Private transfer from Alpe d'Huez in France to Geneva Airport to your lists, Private transfer from Alpe d'Huez in France to Geneva Airport, Save Introduction to ULM piloting to your lists, Save Residhome Caserne de Bonne to your lists, The price is $70 per night from Jan 10 to Jan 11. Redevelopment of the former De Bonne barracks was an important step in the drive to launch sustainable housing in France. It lies at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. In order to foster this technological cluster university institutions and research organizations united to create the GIANT (Grenoble Innovation for Advanced New Technologies) Campus[57] with the aim at becoming one of the world's top campuses in research, higher education, and high tech. This museum explores the poignant story of deportation of “undesirables” during World War II and the role of Grenoble and the Isère region in France’s Resistance movement. Grenoble can be accessed by air from Grenoble-Isère Airport, Lyon Saint-Exupéry Airport and Geneva International Airport, with the airport bus connections being most frequent to Lyon Saint-Exupéry. [30] In order to sustain the war effort, new hydroelectric industries developed along the various rivers of the region, and several existing companies moved into the armaments industry (for example in Livet-et-Gavet). There is also a small military museum on mountain troops (Musée des troupes de montagne) and, since 2000, a memorial to the mountain troops (Mémorial national des troupes de montagne) further along the road, on top of the hill. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. On 5 November 1944, General Charles de Gaulle came to Grenoble and bestowed on the city the Compagnon de la Libération in order to recognise "a heroic city at the peak of the French resistance and combat for the liberation".[33]. The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement (the third in France after the Parliaments of Paris and Toulouse), strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. Its people consequently had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. Grenoble,. Place Grenette and Les Halles Sainte-Claire ...WWW…, "Facilities good, street parking difficult, noisy at night from the park outside. The web site of the Rocade Nord lists the two preferred routes, both of which pass under the Bastille in a long tunnel: Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Roman Catholic Diocese of Grenoble-Vienne, International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism, National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control, Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique, Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble, Laboratoire de physique subatomique et de cosmologie de Grenoble, Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble, European Institute of Innovation and Technology, List of twin towns and sister cities in France, "Répertoire national des élus: les maires", Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, "Université Grenoble Alpes : "1 out of 5" (english version)", "Il y a 250 ans naissait Joseph Chanrion (1756–1830)", fr:Exposition internationale de la houille blanche#Les chiffres, "JO de 1968 à Grenoble : la transformation d'une ville", "1968/2018 Célébration des 50 ans des Jeux Olympiques d'hiver de Grenoble", "Données climatiques de la station de Grenoble", "Normes et records 1961-1990: Grenoble-St Geoirs (38) - altitude 384m". Stade Lesdiguières is located in Grenoble and has been the venue for international rugby league and rugby union games. This renaissance palace was constructed at the Place Saint André around 1500 and extended in 1539. This cable transport system connected a quarry on Mount Jalla, just over the Bastille, and Grenoble. Grenoble hosted the 1968 Winter Olympics. The region has the second largest English-speaking community in France, after Paris. The city is an important university centre with over 54,000 students in 2013, of whom 16% arrive from abroad.[52]. Hotel de Ville - Grenoble France City Hall. ... Jardin de Ville is located in Grenoble. Compare 107 hotels near Grenoble Hotel de Ville Tram Stop in Grenoble using 6350 real guest reviews. About 2.5 miles from Grenoble and 2 miles from Saint-Étienne-de-Saint-Geoirs, Grenoble-Isère Airport is … This system of mostly transparent egg-shaped cable cars known to locals as "Les Bulles" (the bubbles) provides the occupants with an excellent view over the Isère. "WWW…", Located in Grenoble City Centre, this residence is within a 5-minute walk of Place Grenette, Grenoble-Bastille Cable Car, and Jardin de Ville. [46] A shopping mall contains 53 shops arranged around an inner concourse, with one side opening onto the park and the other connecting to the town. Charles VIII, Louis XII, and Francis I went several times to Grenoble. Additional terms may apply. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Industry occupies a large part of the local economy. [23] This allowed a stronger economic development for the city during the 18th century. Highways link Grenoble to the other major cities in the area including the A48 autoroute to the northwest toward Lyon, the A49 to the southwest toward the Rhone valley via Valence, the A41 to the northeast toward Chambéry, the Alps, and Italy and Switzerland. The painting holdings include works by painters such as Veronese, Rubens, Zurbarán, Ingres, Delacroix, Renoir, Gauguin, Signac, Monet, Matisse, Picasso, Kandinsky, Joan Miró, Paul Klee, Giorgio de Chirico and Andy Warhol. Ville de Grenoble Isère France On 25 November, the occupiers killed 11 members of the Résistance organizations of Grenoble. Grenoble. The City Hall, located on place Stalingrad, which one can reach through the rue Général de Gaulle, was edified on the site of two imposing town houses at the end of the 18th century which used to belong to the Viennois family. Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, and the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes. Take a look at our Grenoble driving holiday planner to schedule your visit to Jardin de Ville and learn about what else to … Rainfall is quite heavy by French standards, although the number of rainy days is relatively moderate. Other research centres in or near Grenoble include the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), the Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique, one of the main research facilities of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (Nuclear Energy Commission, CEA), the LNCMI and the European branch of Xerox Research (whose most notable center was PARC). See all. In a 1339 pontificial bull, Pope Benedict XII commissioned the establishment of the University of Grenoble. Lowest nightly price found within the past 24 hours based on a 1 night stay for 2 adults. Grenoble hosts several festivals: the Détours de Babel in March,[71] the Open Air Short Film Festival in early July, and the Cabaret Frappé music festival at the end of July. [54] Biotechnologies are also well represented in the Grenoble region with the molecular biology research center BioMérieux, the Clinatec center, the regional center NanoBio and many ramifications of the global competitiveness cluster Lyonbiopôle.[55]. The Tour de France cycling race regularly passes through the city. [64] That community has an English-speaking Church and supports the International School. Shop for 162 deals across 34 hotels, starting at USD 25 per night. Where do you want to stay? The Bastille, an ancient series of fortifications on the mountainside, overlooks Grenoble on the northern side and is visible from many points in the city. This exhibition also highlighted the city's hydropower industry and the region's tourist attractions. 2 adults - 1 room. The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research, technology and innovation centres, with one in five inhabitants working directly in these fields. High-tech industries have a significant presence, especially in the field of semiconductors, electronics and biotechnology. The glove factories reached their Golden Age, and their products were exported to the United States, the United Kingdom, and Russia.[28]. Historically, both Grenoble and the surrounding areas were sites of heavy industry and mining. From 1970 to 2015, the university was divided into four separate institutions sharing the campus grounds, some buildings and laboratories, and even part of their administration: On 1 January 2016, the first three of those merged back to form the Université Grenoble Alpes. The city's most prized museum, the Museum of Grenoble (Musée de Grenoble), welcomes 200,000 visitors a year. Hôtel de ville (Grenoble, France) Publication date 1888 Publisher Grenoble : Impr. Choose two or more items and save on your trip: 2 bis rue Marcel Desprez, Grenoble, Isere. Created by Kevin Kstel 32 items • 19 followers. The Bastille has been credited as the most extensive example of early 18th-century fortifications in all of France. Charles de Gaulle, were a triumph for France … Until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble".[14]. The economic development of the city was highlighted by the organization of the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism in 1925, which was visited by more than 1 million people. ", The price is $49 per night from Jan 3 to Jan 4. Grenoble is a major scientific centre, especially in the fields of physics, computer science, and applied mathematics: Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF) is one of the leading French scientific universities while the Grenoble Institute of Technology trains more than 5,000 engineers every year in key technology disciplines. The inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. [4][5][9] Grenoble is classified as a global city with the ranking of "sufficiency" by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Reach this downtown park by taking tram lines A or B. [12] In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis ("city of Gratian") in 381 (leading to Graignovol[13] during the Middle Age and then Grenoble). However, the later invasion of France in 1814 resulted in the capitulation of the troops and the occupation of the city. Inside the building, find brochures about international associations and regional events. A partial ring road around the south of the city, the Rocade Sud, connects the motorway arriving from the northwest (A48) with that arriving from the northeast (A41). Grenoble Ecole de Management, a triple-accredited French business school with a unique focus on the Management of Technology & Innovation. Three centuries later and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD.[11]. Grenoble Theater ...…Located in Grenoble City Centre, this residence is within a 5-minute walk of Place Grenette, Grenoble-Bastille Cable Car, and Jardin de Ville. An oasis of peaceful greenery in the center of the city, this public garden is the site of one of Grenoble’s biggest festivals every summer. The front of the former seat of the nearby Dauphiné Parlement combines elements from a gothic chapel and a Renaissance façade. There are several theaters in Grenoble, the main one being Grenoble Municipal Theatre (Théatre de Grenoble). There he met the royalist fifth Infantry Regiment of Louis XVIII. It then held an important strategic point on the French Alpine frontier with the Kingdom of Savoy.[47]. The vestiges date back all the way to the 3rd century AD and provide a timeline of the history of Christianity in the region. The well-defended city contained the Austrian attacks, and the French army defeated the Austrians, forcing them to withdraw at Geneva. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva, Italy, and Savoy. The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine and Voiron.[6][7]. Grenoble is the home of first rugby union, FC Grenoble, and ice hockey teams, Brûleurs de loups, and a second-tier football team, Grenoble Foot 38, . Stroll through the garden’s several different areas, populated by palm, orange, sycamore and chestnut trees, along with colorful seasonal flowers. After months of assaults, Lesdiguières defeated the Ligue and took back Grenoble. The city will hold the title of European Green Capital in 2022. "Party.. The Germans could not prevent the destruction of their new arsenal on 2 December at the Bonne Barracks. The Bouchayer-Viallet site is a powerful symbol of Grenoble's industrial past. Cancel free on most hotels. Guests. go to Grenoble with the intention of returning home after some time but the mountains and general life style often keep them there. When they later took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. [36] It also helped the development of ski resorts like Chamrousse, Les Deux Alpes, and Villard-de-Lans.[37]. Grenoble Theater ... "It was okay for a night to stopover. Many fundamental and applied scientific research laboratories are conjointly managed by Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble Institute of Technology, and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). At the top are two restaurants and installed in the casemates of the fort itself since June 2006, the Bastille Art Centre allows visitors to see contemporary art exhibitions. The Musée de l'Ancien Évêché is the second archaeological museum of the city, and located near the Grenoble Cathedral. Le Contemporain, Hyper-center, 80m², 8 pers. In the centre of the city, two schools have provided education to the isérois for more than three centuries. ", The price is $189 per night from Jan 5 to Jan 6. In 1869 engineer Aristide Bergès played a major role in industrializing hydroelectricity production. It became the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century. This violent crackdown was nicknamed "Grenoble's Saint-Bartholomew". Find a seat on one of the quiet benches shaded by trees, which are found throughout its 4-acre (1.6-hectare) area. The establishment of the Empire was overwhelmingly approved (in Isère, the results showed 82,084 yes and only 12 no). The museum is situated below a 12th-century Benedictine church, under which Jacques Joseph Champollion-Figeac, brother of famed egyptologist Jean-François Champollion, discovered a Roman church in 1803. This event helped modernize the city with the development of infrastructure such as an airport, motorways, a new town hall, and a new train station. Cancel free on most hotels. Local rail services connect Grenoble with Lyon, and less frequently to Geneva, to Valence, and to destinations to the South. [38] Abandoned mills and factories can be found in small towns and villages, and a few have been converted to tourist attractions, such as the coal mine at La Mure. Installed in 1998, it houses the first baptistery of the city, The Grenoble townhall hosts a bust of Stendhal by sculptor Pierre Charles Lenoir. Innovative business activities as Apple Inc.[45] co-exist with housing, sporting facilities, contemporary music venue and arts centres as Le Magasin. Tour Perret Parc Paul Mistral. Go for a stroll or relax at an outdoor café in this busy square, home to several of Grenoble’s most important historic sites. More from Grenoble. Following these events, the Assembly of Vizille took place. It offers over 40 programs from the … The limit however remains 50 km/h on the main arteries.[70]. View deals for Splendide Duplex dans Maison de Ville, including fully refundable rates with free cancellation. During the Revolution, Grenoble was represented in Paris by two illustrious notables, Jean Joseph Mounier and Antoine Barnave. Grenoble 1968 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Grenoble, France, that took place Feb. 6–18, 1968. After World War I, one street in the centre of Smederevska Palanka (Serbia) was named French street (Francuska ulica) and one street in Grenoble was named Palanka street(Rue de Palanka). Located in Grenoble City Centre, this residence is within a 10-minute walk of La Caserne de Bonne and Paul Mistral Park. Place Grenette and Les Halles Sainte-Claire ...…Located in Grenoble City Centre, this residence is within a 10-minute walk of La Caserne de Bonne and Paul Mistral Park. Snowfall also occurs, although the climate of Grenoble itself is too mild to sustain a snow pack all winter, unlike the surrounding mountains. The center is more geared towards expats than tourists, but you may find some of the information about local activities useful. Earn free nights, get our Price Guarantee & make booking easier with! While Grenoble is not directly on any high-speed line, TGVs can run at reduced speeds on the classic network and enable such connections. Grenoble is regarded as the capital of the French Alps. This development resulted in significant immigration to Grenoble, particularly from Italian workers who settled in the Saint-Laurent neighborhood. With the landing in Provence, German troops evacuated the city on 22 August 1944. The station was rebuilt in 1967 for the 1968 Winter Olympics. The oldest one, the Lycée Stendhal, was founded in 1651[51] as a Jesuit College. At the entrance to the Bouchayer-Viallet site, Square des Fusillés has been redeveloped and extended taking over an old car park, to facilitate access from the tramway stop and Cours Berriat. The only Dauphin who really governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. Place in La Tronche, Rhône-Alpes (France). Grenoble is loved for its shopping and charming cafés, and has lots of places to visit including Place Notre Dame, Old Bishop's Palace Museum, and Cathedral Notre-Dame of Grenoble. Grenoble is surrounded by mountains. In 1965, the university mostly relocated from downtown to a suburban main campus outside of the city in Saint Martin d'Hères (with some parts in Gières). Except for a few dozen houses on the slopes of the Bastille hill of Chartreuse, Grenoble is exclusively built on the alluvial plain of the rivers Isère and Drac at an altitude of 214 metres (702 ft). The nobility of the region took part in various battles (Marignano, Pavia) and in doing so gained significant prestige. All rights reserved. The park was opened in 1719 and was specifically built for The Duke of Lesdiguières who had the Garden built next to his private hotel. [22] However, it also weakened the competing glove industry of Grasse, leaving the glove factories of Grenoble without any competition. 174K likes. The Little Train of La Mure will take you to a charming journey around the breathtaking natural beauties of Grenoble, passing through fascinating tunnels and bridges. Grenoble, France. The city is surrounded by ski resorts nestled in the surrounding mountains. One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. 9 oct. 2016 - Explorez le tableau « GRENOBLE ISERE » de Danielle Lagier, auquel 115 utilisateurs de Pinterest sont abonnés. "WWW…", Located in Grenoble City Centre, this apartment building is within a 5-minute walk of Dauphinois Museum, Museum of Grenoble, and Musée Archéologique Grenoble ...…Located in Grenoble City Centre, this apartment building is within a 5-minute walk of Dauphinois Museum, Museum of Grenoble, and Musée Archéologique Grenoble ...WWW…. After that, Napoleon was acclaimed at Grenoble and General Jean Gabriel Marchand could not prevent Napoleon from entering the city through the Bonne gate. Hotel de Ville is a 13-story high-rise building in Grenoble, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France. A project to complete the ring road, with a tunnel under the Bastille as part of the likely routes, was rejected after its environmental impact studies.[69]. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries. Your hotel rewards start here! In April 2010, the prophetess of Antinoe, a 6th-century mummy discovered in 1907 in the Coptic necropolis of Antinoe in Middle Egypt, returned to the Museum of Grenoble, after more than fifty years of absence and an extensive restoration. It is primarily renowned for its extensive paintings collection, which covers all artistic evolutions. The first cable transport system, installed on the Bastille in 1875, was built by the Porte de France Cement Company for freight. Join more than 50,000 people each year at this lively festival which also includes games, readings and other entertainment. One of Grenoble’s most popular tourist attractions, this unique ride takes visitors high over the city to a dramatic hilltop overlooking the scenery below. [66], Publisher Glénat has its head office in Grenoble. If you want to find things to do in the area, you may want to check out Station de Chamrousse and Grenoble-Bastille Cable Car. Le Jardin de Ville (Effet de givre), France. With numerous associations like Open House, this large English speaking population organizes family events making life in Grenoble harder to turn away from. Numerous other scientific laboratories are managed independently or in collaboration with the CNRS and the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (INRIA). In 2011, the largest employers in the Grenoble metropolitan area were:[63], The presence of companies such as HP or Caterpillar in the area has drawn many American and British workers to Grenoble, especially in the surrounding mountain villages.

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